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宇宙重元素來源之謎解開

文章來源:科技日報 張夢然   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  盡管元素周期表已經誕生150年,人們仍然不了解很多宇宙重元素是如何被創造出來的,包括黃金、白金以及便攜式電子產品中的稀土元素。據美國太空網9日報道的一項最新研究稱,絕大部分宇宙中的金、鈾和其他重元素,都是由迅速旋轉的坍縮恒星產生的。

  宇宙中三種最輕的元素——氫、氦和鋰,都誕生于宇宙的最早時刻,即大爆炸后僅一分鐘左右,而元素周期表上的鐵元素大部分都是在恒星的核心形成的。但是,周期表中比鐵更重的元素(如金和鈾)的形成方式一直是個謎。

  先前的研究提出了一個關鍵線索:“r-過程”,或稱為快中子捕獲過程,是在核心發生塌縮的超新星中創造富含中子且比鐵重的元素的過程。

  2017年,借助激光干涉引力波天文臺(LIGO)和“處女座”(Virgo)引力波探測器探測到的“漣漪”,天文學家發現了中子星之間的碰撞。引力波的發現使研究人員認為,大多數“r-過程”元素都是在中子星合并的物質繭中形成的。

  由此,以加拿大圓周理論物理研究所科學家為首的團隊,開發了一種計算機模擬的吸積盤(由彌散物質組成的、圍繞中心體轉動的結構,常見于繞恒星運動的盤狀結構),并預測了可能會形成的塌縮。他們發現,在這些吸積盤中,很多物質都圍繞著新生的黑洞進行了圓形化。

  研究人員表示,這些物質令人難以置信地熱且密,在最內部區域,產生了“形成重元素如金和鉑金所需的初始條件”。研究認為,坍縮物應該產生了至少80%的重元素含量,而近20%來自中子星合并。

  團隊希望未來能進一步研究元素是如何在其他類型的吸積盤中產生的,例如強磁化恒星產生的超新星,進而厘清宇宙中的化學進化和星系“組裝”問題。




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